Research
The five main research axes of the International Association DemoBalk
The demographic situation in the Balkans
Coordinators :  
Jean-Paul Sardon
Byron Kotzamanis
This component of the research programme aims to analyse demographic situations and trends in the Balkan countries via a truly comparative approach, including a cartographic dimension.
It involves:
• Developing a database and demographic indicators suited to international and infranational comparisons;
• Studying demographic phenomena, notably: overall and order-specific fertility; permanent sterility; non-marital fertility; marriage rates; divorce rates; overall mortality; demographic dynamics; age structure and ageing; seasonality;
• Exploring the consequences of observed trends;
• Critical assessment of measures that could be implemented to accompany ongoing demographic trends and modify their evolution;
• A programme of publications: summaries of the demographic situation in the Balkans, national monographs;
Settlement and land development in the Balkan region
Coordinators :  
Marie-Noëlle Duquenne
Stamatina Kaklamani
The Balkan countries, like many other European nations, include depopulated regions –sometimes in a serious state of abandonment– alongside other highly dynamic regions which attract an ever larger proportion of the population.
This research theme has several objectives :
• Analyse the factors behind the uneven population distribution observed in the Balkans today.
• Measure the effect of these various factors on economic and social development and on the well-being of populations.
• Study the impact of differential land occupation on the environment and of the environment on human settlement.
• Assess the strategies and modes of action to promote the balanced and sustainable coexistence –or even synergy– of regions with contrasting demographic dynamics and with very diverse and unequal capacities and needs.
Population ageing in the Balkans since 1950
Coordinators :  
Alain Parant
Goran Penev
Population ageing, defined as an increase in the proportion of old people in the population, is a very long-standing phenomenon in Europe. It is the consequence of two trends, generally viewed as positive – improved fertility control and longer life expectancy. The process will speed up over the coming decades and affect societies which, in many cases, are ill-prepared for this change.
The research program presented below focuses on analyzing the exact mechanisms of population ageing from the end of the Second World War up to 2050 and the consequences for both communities and individuals. It addresses the impact of demographic ageing at national and infra-national levels via two types of question: What are the challenges raised by population ageing? And how should these challenges be addressed?
• Effects of changes in key determinants of demographic renewal –fertility, mortality, personal mobility– on the past and future age structure of Balkan countries, regions and major cities (simulation).
• Impact of demographic ageing on past and future welfare spending (health, pensions).
• Critical analysis of past population policies.
• Long-term prospective study of ageing Balkan societies (studies based on contrasting trend scenarios).
This programme also examines the renewal and ageing of the working-age population (aged 15-64 years) and its components: working-age population (employed & unemployed) and working population.
It aims to:
• track changes in these diverse populations since 1950 (total numbers, by sex, age, educational level, sectors of activity, occupational status, geographical location, etc.);
• analyse the renewal mechanisms: effect of birth rate, mortality and international migration;
• estimate the effects of international migration on the distribution of educational levels and draw conclusions on the possible existence of a "brain drain".
National identity in the Balkan countries
Coordinators :  
Snjezana Mrdjen
Mirjana Devedzic
The question of national identities and the desire of governments to identify them with precision – notably via censuses and questions on country of citizenship (nationality), ethnicity, mother tongue or religion – have always been of key importance in the Balkans.
This research theme aims to:
• Study how the collection of ethnic statistics has evolved over time by looking at successive censuses and surveys conducted in the various territories of the Balkan region;
• Assess the reliability and comparability over time and space of the data collected;
• Measure the effect of the crises of the 1990s and 2000s on changes in the ethnic structure of populations;
• Analyse, via appropriate indicators, changes in the demographic and social relationships between different ethnic groups represented in the various political entities.
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